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About Georgia

Georgia is situated in the central part of the South Caucasus, at the crossroad of Europe and Asia, the territory between the Black and Caspian seas.
Total Area: 69.700 sq. m.
Population: 4.6 million
Capital: Tbilisi
Administrative divisions: Georgia is divided in 12 administrative unities.

  • Abkhazia (Sukhumi)
  • Adjaria (Batumi)
  • Guria (Ozurgeti)
  • Imereti (Kutaisi)
  • Kakheti (Telavi)
  • Kvemo Kartli (Rustavi)
  • Mtskheta – Mtianeti (Mtskheta)
  • Racha – Lechkhumi – Kvemo Svaneti (Ambrolauri)
  • Samegrelo – Zemo Svaneti (Zugdidi)
  • Samtskhe – Javakheti (Akhaltsikhe)
  • ShidaKartli (Gori)
  • Tbilisi

Administrative Form: Presidential Republic
State language: Georgian  
Ethnic minorities: Georgian 82.3%; Armenians – 5.5 %; Azerbaijanian – 5.7 %; Russians – 2.2%; Abkhazians – 1.2 %; others – 3.5%;
Religion: Orthodox – 86.5%; Muslims – 5.8 %; Gregorian – 4.7 %; Catholics – 1%; other – 2%.
Time zone: summer time + 2 GMT; winter time + 3 GMT
North boundary – the Russian Federation (723 km.), South – east – Azerbaijan (322 km.), South boundary – Armenia (164 km.), South – west boundary – Turkey (252 km.), from the west – The Black Sea.

Landscape: the Landscape in Georgia is diversified. The northern part of Georgia is the Great Caucasus, with the highest mountain tops: Shkhara 5068 m, Kazbegi (Mkinvartsveri) 5047 m., Ushba 4710 m. In the southern part, there is the Small Caucasus, or the so called Plateau of the South Georgia. There is the Kolkheti plain located between these two mountain systems (the lowest place here is -1.5 m., which is nearby territory of the Paliastomi Lake), Shida and Kvemo Kartli and the Alazani Valley.

In Georgia there are 26000 rivers and 756 lakes. The longest rivers in the country:  Mtkvari, Alazani, Rioni, Tergi, Iori, Enguri, etc. The largest lake is Paravani, while the deepest is Amtkeli. Georgia is famous for the great variety of mineral water springs. There are more than 2000 types of mineral waters, such as: Borjomi, Sairme, Nabeghlavi, Java, Utsera and so on. Our country is rich in fresh and thermal waters as well (its temperature is 110 degrees C at some areas, which is the highest in the world).
Climate: The relatively small territory of Georgia covers almost all the climate zones of the earth, starting form subtropical Alpine zones to dense forests and semi – deserts. The climate here is warm and pleasant. The Likhi mountain range divides Georgia into sharply different climate zones: In the western part of Georgia the climate is subtropical marked with frequent rainy weather; while in the eastern part the weather is more dry and continental. The coldest period of the year is January and the hottest month of the year is August. The average temperature of January is + 3 C up (in western Georgia), – 2C up (in the east of Georgia), the average temperature of August is 23-26 C.

The territory of Georgia is rich in diverse vegetation, which is caused with the sharp difference between the climates of western and eastern Georgia. The forest covers 38.6% of the whole territory. There are around 100 animal and 330 bird, 48 reptile, 11 amphibian and 160 fish species all over Georgia; There are multiple endemic flora and fauna representatives. Georgia is also famous for Daghestani and Caucasian goat, hyena, deer, wolf, bear, sparrow, falcon, peasant, steppe eagle, Caucasian mink, other bird species, etc.; another remarkable thing about Georgian nature world is the rarest flora and fauna preserved in the national parks of Borjomi – Kharagauli, Kolkheti and Lagodekhi, etc. there are the rarest flora and fauna samples preserved in the national parks of the country.

There are few countries in the world, mentioned in historic sources 3-4 thousand years ago. The archeological excavations in Georgia, small Caucasus have proved the fact that people lived here 1.8 million years ago. These are the “the most ancient remains of homo sapiens” first discovered on the territory of Europe. Later, in the lithic age, there are more intensively populated human settlements, discovered in this region. From this time on, people never quitted the territory of Georgia.
The history of Georgia clearly depicts every social formation, that humankind has ever experienced. Early class relations have started in the second millennium B. C. The myth about Argonauts describes one of the strongest kingdoms of Georgia – Kolkheti at that time and distinctly emphasizes its power.

In the following period, the role of the King Parnavaz is important, which has given a great impact on the whole history and contributed to the formation of the Georgian state; according to sources he was the founder of the Georgian written language, which is one of those thirteen world written languages, remained in the world.

Christianity has also played a very special role in the history of Georgia. Christianity was first introduced in Georgia by the apostles of Christ – Andria the First, Svimon Kananeli and Matatha. Later, St. Nino converted the country into Christianity and after her preaching Christianity became the state religion in the year of 337 A. D. Another remarkable thing about Georgia is that there are many sacred objects for the whole Christian world, preserved in Georgia: The Lord’s Tunic buried in the Svetitskhoveli Cathedral and the robe of the Virgin Mary.

Georgia has been bordering powerful empires throughout history. The country used to be invaded by them and sometimes served as the battlefield for their military actions. Due to its strategic location (the Silk Road used to pass here) and the fertile soils, there were many attempts to conquer the country by Arabians, Turks, Mongols and other Muslim or Christian empires. However, despite such constant invasions and battles, the country did its best to save its culture, language and religion. At times, there were also the ages of Renaissance in the country.

Despite multiple invasions, in the X century Georgia was ready for reunification, which was crowned with the epoch of David Aghmashenebeli (1089-1125 A. D.) and Tamar Mepe (Tamar the King) (1184-1213 A. D.). This period is called as the “Golden Age” for Georgia, characterized with powerful policy, cultural restoration and the construction of churches ad monasteries. The world famous poem “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” as one of the best creations of literature was written during the reign of King Tamar.

In the XIX Century, Georgia suffered annexation by Russia. Georgia was under the domination of Russia for almost 200 years. First it was one of its provinces and later became a part of the Soviet Union. In spite of hard times, the country made all efforts to preserve its culture and other national values. In 1991 the Supreme Council of the Georgian Republic declared independence and separated from the Soviet Union. In 1992, it joined the UN and other international organizations.

In 2003 the “Rose Revolution” took place in Georgia. The country was directed towards reforms. At the time being, Georgia is a democratic country headed by the president.  

In October 1 2012, democratic elections were held in Georgia and the government has consequently changed.