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Tskaltubo is a spa resort in central part of western Imereti region of Georgia. It represents the South Caucasus foothill and is situated in the gorge of River “Tskaltubo”. Tskaltubo is located 7 km. from Georgia’s second largest city Kutaisi, and about 250 km. from Georgia’s capital Tbilisi. The population is 17, 5 thousand people. Tskaltubo is one of the amazing and ancient resorts of both Georgia whole world, and is well-known for its thermal and mineral springs. The Black Sea coast is 100-kilometers away from Tskaltubo, the place which was reached by Greek Argonauts headed by Jason in antique epoch based on Greek Mythology. Argonauts were heroes, who before the Trojan War traveled to Colchis in their quest for the Golden Fleece. Tskaltubo is one of the places where Jason and Medea, the younger daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis engaged in love affairs in a mystic cave. Medea is a symbol of civilization diversity of ancient Georgian state Colchis, its culture, medical and scientific development. Many scientists and ancient society relate the name of Medea to the development of medicine to the current modern condition. The term “medicine” comes from name Medea. According to legends and different historic records, Medea had miraculous knowledge and skills how to treat unhealed diseases. She used immortal spring to produce medicines. The spring presumably was brought from Tskaltubo. Tskaltubo is first mentioned in written manuscripts dated to 1245-1250 which are kept at Gelati Monastery.

Tskaltubo holds a special place and is interesting with tourist pint of view. It is a foothill with ever-green decorative plants and flowers adjoined by mounts and rocks such as “Khvamli” and “White Mounts.” Tskaltubo is located on southern slopes of the Main Caucasian Range, which protects the resort from the invasion of cold air masses from the north, on Colchis plateau on 100 meters above sea level. Winter is warm and mild. The average air temperature of the coldest month (January) is 4.80 C, the hottest month of year (July) – 28.10 C. Humid subtropical climate makes Tskaltubo a climate resort.

Organized resort activities in Tskaltubo have begun as of 1926. The place was of special importance for Joseph Stalin, a former dictator of the Soviet Union, as being a definitely worth place in the Union. Stalin spared no efforts and energy for development of its resort potential. He made Tskaltubo especially popular in the Soviet era, attracting around 125,000 visitors a year. Stalin had his own summer house in Tskaltubo. The house hosted Gamal Abdel Nasser, former president of Egypt several times in the 1950-60s. Nasser visited Tskaltubo to take baths and this fact is well-known in the Arabic world.

Besides treatment visitors can culturally rest at Tskaltubo. There are house-museums of the well-known writer Niko Lortkipanidze, scientist Shalva Nutsubidze and Linguist Giorgi Akhvlediani in Tskaltubo. Tourists can visit an Imeruli Inn of the famous writer and dramaturg Otia Ioseliani. Museums of Art and Local Lore, decorative garden of agronomist Stephane Kiknadze, a concert hall, stadium, tennis courts, restaurants, bars, cafes, billiard rooms and casinos are opened here.

The resort has a big park with different kinds of subtriopic plants, a natural lake which is extended to 5 hectares of territory used for swimming and sun-bathing. Holiday-makers can tour about entire Georgia and especially western Georgia due to favorable location of the resort. An industrial and cultural center Kutaisi is in proximity to Tskaltubo where tourists can attend drama and opera performances, concerts of national folklore ensembles, visit city museums, art gallery, historic monuments of mid-centuries, magnificent Bagrati temple and other sightseeing sites.

Ancient and unique architectural monuments: Geguti Fortress-Hall, Gelati Monastery Complex, Motsameta, Nikortsminda, Nokalakevi, Vartsikhe and others are located near the spa resort. It will take tourists approximately 1.5 hour drive by bus to get to the Black Sea coast; the same time is needed to reach Alp Mountains of Svaneti and the world of White Glaciers.

A dinosaur trace fossil of millions of years old, discovered on the territory of Sataplia Natural Preserve remarkable for its flora, fauna and limestone cave, is preserved at Tskaltubo.  Kumistavi cave, known in the Europe, is located 6 kilometers away from Tskaltubo where tourists can see underground wonders: transparent lakes, fairy halls of stalactites and stalagmites.

Therefore, those tourists who do not need medical treatment can visit different historic sightseeing sites of both east and west Georgia with a special program, go to the beach, enjoy horse-riding in the highly-elevated areas, go fishing, depending on the mood entertain or rest. Tskaltubo is accessible for various transport means: car, train or airplane directly connected to Georgia’s capital Tbilisi, Batumi and other cities.


Therapeutic effects caused by radon.

Effect of radon on a living organism is multifaceted. Not a single cell or a system that is not worked to radon. With various diseases in the first place out different aspects of the therapeutic effect of radon procedures.

In diseases of the musculoskeletal system:
Acceptance of radon procedures reduces inflammation and increase mobility in damaged joints, reduce pain, but also has desensitizing effect (removal of the allergy).

In cardiovascular diseases:
Radon causes the improvement of nutrition of the heart muscle, the normalization of blood pressure (decrease in blood pressure and increase with hypotension), slowing of pulse rate and an increase in stroke and minute volume of cardiac output.
Radon has antiarrhythmic effects.

In diseases of the nervous system:
Radon procedures have a marked analgesic effect.
Receiving radon improves during inflammatory processes in the nerve accelerates regeneration of nerve fibers. Radon has a pronounced sedative (calming) effect on the central nervous system.

In diseases of female genital sphere:
Radon therapy for diseases of female genital sphere leads to better circulation of pelvic organs, raising the threshold of cutaneous pain sensitivity, significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. This positive effect on the overall condition of patients on menstrual and reproductive function, hormonal function of ovaries, marked positive effect on uterine and menopausal bleeding, inflammatory lesions in the pelvis. Stops the growth of fibroids, if its value does not exceed the size of a three-month pregnancy.

Urological diseases:
Urological diseases to the forefront anti-inflammatory, analgesic, bacteriostatic (stops growth of bacteria), spasmolytic effect, enhanced contractile function of smooth muscle of biliary tract, decrease levels of uric acid in the blood.

If gastro-intestinal diseases:
Drinking radon water activates regeneration (recovery) of the gastric mucosa after resection, accelerates the healing of ulcers of the stomach and intestines, reduces the acidity in the acidity of gastric juice.

In addition:

  • Radon has a normalizing effect on the core (protein), carbohydrate, mineral, cholesterol and water metabolism in the body.
  • Reduced specific reactivity (allergy) and increased non-specific reactivity (immunity) of an organism.
  • Increases resistance to infectious diseases.
  • Enhanced antitumor immunity.
  • Radon baths accelerate epithelization of skin in patients with burns.
  • Terms of the therapeutic effect of the use of radon depends on the form of the disease, its stage and condition of the body. It begins during the course of treatment, reaches its maximum at 1,5-2 months and last from six months to a year and a half.


The name ”balneotherapy” comes from the Latin balneum - bath, bathing, and Greek therapeia - treatment. What lies behind the two words of ancient languages, turned into one – the language of contemporary?  One of the most popular SPA-procedures: treatment by mineral waters.

History of balneotherapy
It is not known who first got the idea to use a beating from the earth for healing mineral springs. Impossible even to call the country where it first occurred. I think many people at the same time realized that in the mineral water is hidden a great healing power. And learned how to use it for their own benefit: not only for bathing, but also for treatment.
First described the therapeutic qualities the Egyptians and Babylonians. In ancient papyrus and clay tablets are stories about the properties of water. In the era of the Roman Empire procedure using water from mineral and hot springs have been popular almost more than today. The Romans knew a good judge of body care. The Roman physician Galen recommended sulfur baths for everyone to find a healthy radiant skin. Until now, the tourists in different parts of Europe show the remains of Roman baths – balneums, prototypes of modern SPA-salons.
From the ancient world knowledge about the healing power of water moved into the world of the Renaissance. Gradually around the mineral springs have become resorts sprout: Vichy, Carlsbad, Wiesbaden, Baden-Baden. About stay “on the waters’ enthusiastically wrote Victor Hugo, Belinsky, Dostoevsky, Bismarck, Nietzsche. And how many love stories appeared thanks to “hydrotherapy”!
Years passed before an intuitive understanding of human use of mineral water has become a confidence in its curative properties, and then in the scientific and proven method of treatment.

The action of balneotherapy
That especially in these mineral waters? And what does it do this – mineral water? ..
Mineral called water formed deep underground at high temperatures and pressures.From rocks, they acquire special properties (eg, radioactivity) and are fed mineral or organic components, gases (radon, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide) and salt. The result – the underground water may have a therapeutic effect on the human body.
Often on the surface of the mineral water comes in the form of sources. Around them-and spa resorts are being built. According to distinguish between water temperature, cold (below 20°C), warm (21-35°C) and hot (above 35°C).
Once languid ladies of high society love to go “on water” to treat his shattered nerves.Since then, the change is not so much. As in ancient times to the mineral springs are sent when the problems with the nervous system. However, those of their healing power is not limited. Mineral water used in balneotherapy, enhances the protective-restorative powers. This means that they strengthen the immune system, normalizes metabolism. Often prescribed balneotherapy for rehabilitation after illness or surgery: myocardial infarction, operations on blood vessels, heart valves, the stomach.
When you are immersed in a mineral bath, your body is exposed to several types of effects: temperature, chemical composition of water and hydrostatic pressure. In addition to water, in the battle for your health and take more gas allocated to it. It sounds, perhaps frightening, but in practice they have many benefits: irritating nerve receptors, gases (radon, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen) and salts penetrate the skin, mucous membranes and respiratory tract into the blood.
In balneotherapy applied natural mineral water (extracted directly from the source) or water, prepared artificially. First, it is not difficult to guess, more useful.


People who are not familiar with speleotherapy, when it is mentioned rather remember the trips to the mountains, and not about the resorts and procedures.Indeed, it has the same root word to speleology – the science that studies the caves.But apart from the Greek speleon – cave there is also therapia – treatment.
In speleotherapy microclimate of caves, grottos, underground mine workings and shafts used for the improvement of the person. And, by the history of the underground hospitals “is at the Millennium. Speleotherapy the first time began to apply more than 2500 years ago. 

History of speleotherapy

As it sometimes happens in science, the amazing properties of the caves were discovered quite by accident. Should be, during the Neolithic people went down into the ground to hide from the weather or wild animals – and felt like in some caves is tired, stop having old wounds. Archaeologists have not once found a small pool, carved into the stone vaults (for example, in terms of grief Crone, Sicily, VI-V centuries. BC). There was supposed to meet the water passes through rocks. These early pools eventually became a famous spa.
In ancient Greece, soldiers, weary long hike, descending into the cave to recuperate.Not only the Greeks, but also many ancient peoples knew about the properties of caves and grottoes, and used them in medicine.
Unexpected discoveries in speleotherapy occurred in the XX century. In Germany during the war, when people were hiding from the bombing in a cave Klyutert, it was noted that under the earth in patients with asthma are attacks of breathlessness, coughing stops.
The first treatment of microclimate of caves have tried to imagine those who could not even dream about going to resorts or expensive consulting physicians. Ordinary workers, producing salt under the ground, year after year, experienced a beneficial effect of rocks. Among them was suffering from asthma or other respiratory diseases.
If the first patients speleotherapy were ordinary workers, then for them to undergo the procedures and feel the healing power of dungeons hastened the highest light.

Action of speleotherapy

When you go down into the cave, where the course is conducted speleotherapy – the blessed effect on the body starts to literally everything. Underground climate is very different from the usual we air on the surface. There will always remain constant as temperature, humidity and barometric pressure. Even the air of caves has healing properties. It is saturated with particles having a high ionization and useful for the organism micronutrients. When breathing they enter the blood of man and are beneficial to its members: normal histamine levels in the blood, protein and carbohydrate exchanges. Trace elements contained in rocks, are included in the biochemical processes in the body faster than drugs. They also harmless to humans and is much faster than lead to the normalization process violations.
In addition, under the ground because of the high concentration of ions in the air, almost no dust, bacteria and allergens. In the mine patients are protected from the influence of environmental factors: contaminants, gases and the effects of electromagnetic fields. Number of microbes per cubic meter of air is only 130-500, with that on the surface of indoor air is clean, if this figure does not exceed 1500 per cubic meter.
Owing to the action of radon and its decay products (which are contained in the air of caves), the cells are transformed, and is their rejuvenation, normal activity of the cardiovascular system, reduces the intensity of the inflammatory process, improve immunity.
Sessions are held with subdued light, often – to the music. At this time you can relax in a comfortable chair. Many fall asleep – really, security from the outside world and the absence of noise brings a feeling of complete rest.

Mineral water Tskaltubo 

The origin of tshaltubskoy water in geological terms is considered the oldest (100-150-year-old) in the formation of which involves modern hydrochemical processes.

However, believe that the formation of tshaltubskoy water is due to the vast resources of underground static water to go the earth’s surface balneologic zone due to the hydrostatic pressure of karst waters.

According to the hypothesis of a mixed-rich chlorine water rises from the Middle Jurassic deposits, mixed with sulfate water of the upper crust, and then in the Lower Cretaceous limestones hydrocarbonate desalt water. Restocking tshaltubskoy mineral water is mainly due to precipitation falling on the slopes Samguralskogo ridge.

Enrichment of radon tshaltubskoy mineral water occurs in the sands of alluvial deposits.

Tshaltubskie mineral springs have always attracted the attention of the sharply differing properties from other medical treatment.

Due to the absence of toxic elements of water has a gentle action, and the procedures legkoperenosimy.

Physico-chemical composition 

Chemical composition tshaltubskih sources characterized by stability and time does not change. This is confirmed by comparing the chemical analysis done over the past 70-80 years.

In tshaltubskih mineral springs were found biologically active trace elements: iodine, bromine, manganese, lithium, boron, zinc, strontium, copper, which, despite the fact that are contained in small amounts, plays an important role in the life of the organism.

Significant role in tshaltubskih sources are gases: nitrogen, radon, helium, argon.  


unique formula of water                                


  SO4, 41 HCO3 34 CI 25

Rn1,9 N2 0,022 N08   —————————–

                                      Ca 55 Mg 24 (Na+K) 21




 Mg. equivalent    

Equivalent % 









































Total mineralization




The dry residue 110О



1. Consultations of the doctor

2. Bath of mineral water in general pool

3. Bath of mineral water in individual bath room

4. Bath mineral water in the basin of the Stalin

5. Spinal horizontal extension  in mineral water

6. Combined horizontal spinal traction in the water

7. Hydro massage (underwater massage) in mineral water

8. Exercising in the pool

9. Exercising in the hall

10. Treatment classical manual massage

11. Gynecologic irrigation and a bath mineral water

12. Hydro–vibro massage

13. Circular shower

14. Riseng shower

15. Shower “Sharko”

16. Physiotherapeutic procedures

17. Mechano–therapy in pool

18. Application of mineral mud (peloidoterapy)

19. Speleotherapy (after completion of the equipping of the cave)